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Sevoflurane reduces clinical disease in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

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Title: Sevoflurane reduces clinical disease in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis
Author(s): Polak, Paul E.; Dull, Randall O.; Kalinin, Sergey; Sharp, Anthony J.; Ripper, Richard; Weinberg, Guy; Schwartz, David E.; Rubinstein, Israel; Feinstein, Douglas L.
Subject(s): Myelin Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Inhaled anesthetic multiple sclerosis
Abstract: Background: Inhalational anesthetics have been shown to influence T cell functions both in vitro and in vivo, in many cases inducing T cell death, suggesting that exposure to these drugs could modify the course of an autoimmune disease. We tested the hypothesis that in mice immunized to develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well established model of multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment with the commonly used inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane would attenuate disease symptoms. Methods: C57Bl6 female mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide residues 35 to 55 to induce a chronic demyelinating disease. At day 10 after immunization, the mice were subjected to 2 h of 2.5% sevoflurane in 100% oxygen, or 100% oxygen, alone. Following treatment, clinical scores were monitored up to 4 weeks, after which brain histology was performed to measure the effects on astrocyte activation and lymphocyte infiltration. Effects of sevoflurane on T cell activation were studied using splenic T cells isolated from MOG peptide-immunized mice, restimulated ex vivo with MOG peptide or with antibodies to CD3 and CD28, and in the presence of different concentrations of sevoflurane. T cell responses were assessed 1 day later by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release for cell death, and inflammatory activation by production of interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)gamma. Results: Clinical scores in the oxygen-treated group increased until day 28 at which time they showed moderate to severe disease (average clinical score of 2.9). In contrast, disease progression in the sevoflurane-treated group increased to 2.1 at day 25, after which it remained unchanged until the end of the study. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced numbers of infiltrating leukocytes and CD4(+) cells in the CNS of the sevoflurane-treated mice, as well as reduced glial cell activation. In splenic T cells, low doses of sevoflurane reduced IFN gamma production, cell proliferation, and increased LDH release. Conclusions: These results are the first to show attenuation of EAE disease by an inhaled anesthetic and are consistent with previous reports that inhaled anesthetics, including sevoflurane, can suppress T cell activation that, in the context of autoimmune diseases such as MS, could lead to reduced clinical progression.
Issue Date: 2012-12
Publisher: BioMed Central
Citation Info: Polak, P. E., Dull, R. O., Kalinin, S., Sharp, A. J., Ripper, R., Weinberg, G., Schwartz, D. E., Rubinstein, I. and Feinstein, D. L. Sevoflurane reduces clinical disease in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2012. 9. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-272
Type: Article
Description: © 2012 Polak et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN: 1742-2094
Sponsor: This work was funded in part by grants from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (DLF) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (DLF, GW).
Date Available in INDIGO: 2014-03-18

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